Cholera disease could be transmitted from one person to another if virus from another person has contaminated the food or water they consume. Cholera outbreak in the past was of concern and the outbreak is prevented by good sanitation and appropriate awareness. Several institutions take many regulatory steps to prevent the spread of the disease that could turn into cholera epidemic.
Cholera symptoms are varied. The disease itself is classified in three stages. The first stage has symptoms like water diarrhea to vomiting. In the second stage, the symptoms to look for are dehydration, thirst, reduced urine and muscle cramps. In stage three, where recovery of the patient happens, it is common to observe mild diarrhea, loss of vital salts like sodium and potassium, hypotension and intense thirst to name a few. Cholera epidemiology has been researched extensively and numerous methods for prevention and cure have been formulated. Cholera vaccine can be acquired in some countries but CDC does not recommend using the vaccine for prevention purposes. Recently, many new vaccines for the treatment of Cholera have been identified. There are new two oral vaccines formulated with the help of volunteers in developed countries and continents with endemic cholera.
Cholera causes are attributed to mainly contaminated drinking water or food. Consuming Undercooked food or eating raw food that are contaminated naturally is also causes of spread of the disease. When it comes to the spread of the disease, the feces of an infected person plays a major part. In places where there is no adequate treatment of sewage and not decent supply of potable water, the disease thrives. Cholera occurs mostly during the warm and the rainy months. The disease can be found mostly affecting people of lower strata. The disease affects children very easily since their immune system is very vulnerable. When it comes to the treatment of cholera, there is indeed good news. If rehydration salts are promptly orally administrated to compensate for the dehydration due to loss of fluids, this will lead to recovery. Sometimes, when the cases are critical, fluids are introduced using intravenous techniques. If untreated at the right time, the cholera disease could turn to be fatal. Sometimes, the time from being infected to reaching the final stage is very quick wherein there is not much time for proper diagnosis. However, such cases are becoming rare.
For the prevention of the disease becoming a pandemic, we need good surveillance systems in place. The disease gets virulent during rainy months and there are usually some zones where the disease resurfaces. Being watchful of these places and installing appropriate tests goes a long way in preventing a pandemic.
One need to extensively worry about cholera, but once inflicted, it is best to take at most care of oneself and take the appropriate medications on time. In addition, personal hygiene, appropriate food treatment and most importantly education and spreading awareness of the disease helps prevent largely, the spread of Cholera. It pays to follow the basic steps of hygiene as it has rightly been said that prevention is better than cure.
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Filed Under: Infection